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The Effect Of Peri-urban Development On The Livelihoods Of Indigenous Households: The Case Of Lower Kiandani Area, Machakos Municipality

Peri-urbanization and its effect on the livelihoods of agricultural households at the urban periphery has been a global concern owing to the many challenges it presents. Peri-urbanization often leads to declining household land holdings which, potentially, diminishes the economic significance of agriculture in urban peripheries. At the same time, new urban activities constitute an opportunity for new livelihoods in urban-based employment. Urbanization may also be synergistic to some forms of agriculture such as horticulture and dairying, due to increased urban demand for fresh farm produce. Arising from the foregoing, this study investigated how peri urban development affects the livelihoods of indigenous households, by using Lower Kiandani area of Machakos town, as a case study. The study used a proportionate stratified random sampling technique to select three samples of the study population in three zones of the study area to carry out a locational analysis in order to: identify the causes of land sub-division and land use change; identify and characterize livelihood strategies; assess the effect of location on livelihoods and incomes and; estimate the relationship between household income and household space and locational factors. Face-to-face interviews using semi-structured questionnaires, and direct observations using observation forms, were used for the collection of key household data. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential methods. The study identified economic factors; commoditization of land; cultural factors and, institutional factors as the main drivers of land sub-division and land use change. Because of peri-urbanization, the study revealed, the economic significance of agriculture as a livelihood strategy in the area had diminished, as evidenced by the locational differential trend of livelihood diversification away from the activity, with distance towards the core, leading to multiple farm and off-farm strategies. In spite of this diversification, the study revealed that household incomes in Lower Kiandani are not influenced by household space and locational factors. On further investigation, however, it was revealed that majority of the households, especially in the inner areas, have not taken advantage of the opportunities of urban-based land use/activities. Based on these key findings, the study recommends policy interventions to manage peri-urbanization in Lower Kiandani, with a view to controlling land sub-division and land use change; promoting multiple livelihoods and; intensifying and diversifying agriculture in the study area

URI

http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/55696

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